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Iraq: Good Governance and Corruption

It is not easy to draw conclusions, for generalizations do not help in clarifying pictures.
Yet, it could be said that Iraq is doing very bad. Iraq has a weak government, rule of law is
absent, and corruption is rampant. It is doing very bad compared to the MENA region. The
region itself might not be doing well when it comes to the rest of the world, but Iraq is doing
even worse than them, which is a deep tragedy.

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By Mohammed Rawanduzy 

Iraq is a country located, probably, in the middle of the Middle East. It is a country endowed with natural resources and potent human labor, but it is plagued with civil wars. (World Bank) It is, formerly called Mesopotamia, the land of the first civilization, and it is where writing was invented. One could argue that there is great cultural and historical accumulation in this land, and perhaps it is why this country is so plagued with civil wars. Iraq has faced two dangerous issues, the shock of oil prices and the ISIS insurgency. (World Bank, IMF). As a result, Iraq has budget deficits and current account deficits. The budget deficit was 14.7 percent in 2016. World Bank and IMF projections indicate that the economy will grow by 7.2% in 2016 and will hover around five percent in the coming years. (World Bank) The size of the public sector in Iraq-measured by public spending-to-GDP ratio is (61.1 percent of GDP). (World Bank) Four million employees of the public sector comprise about half of total employment, and Iraq ranks 169 in doing business. All these, combined with corruption, have exacerbated the already existing issues. On July 7th, 2016, IMF approved a $5.34 billion Stand-By Arrangement for Iraq. (IMF) Iraq will receive loans from IMF for gapping the budget deficit. The aim of the agreement, according to IM, is to stabilize the Iraqi economy, manage external pressure, implement fiscal consolidation, curb corruption, strengthen public financial management and preserve financial sector stability. The aforementioned background information has its own importance. The good governance indicators by the World Bank helps in explaining the situation of Iraq when it comes to regulations and good governance in general. This essay examines Iraq’s score as related to World Bank good governance indicators and compares it to the MENA region in general in 2015. Moreover, examines Iraq’s CPI score and establishes whether it has any basis by comparing and illustrating Iraq’s Human Development Index. To begin with, it is of essence to give an account of the oil industry and its peculiarities, and then it is fundamental to place Iraq within the four corruption syndrome types developed by Michael Johnston. Much of literature concerning the oil industry does not represent oil with a good reputation. Oil is credited with corruption, dictatorship, and an inefficient economy. Oil revenues have four characteristics that render them so consequential. The scale, source, (in)stability and secrecy of oil revenues have far-reaching impacts on the country. (Ross) The secrecy of the oil revenues often lead to corruption as it is not easy to monitor contracts and the amount of oil sold. Only guesses can be made. Iraq suffers due to corruption. One could go as far as claiming that corruption induces threats of national security. Ross examines the relationship between extractive economies and autocracy, and the relation is too obvious to be overlooked. Oil does result in autocracy as it is a secretive industry, and the scale of its revenues help in cooptation and intimidation of the population. Accountability is absent, and Iraq and the KRG are an example. Moreover, the oil industry crowds out the other non-oil sector industries. Since oil prices are highly volatile, it is hard to have an efficient stable economy. Without economic diversification, the economy will suffer. Additionally, since Iraq, as it will be illustrated later, is a country with high levels of corruption, it will be helpful to locate Iraq within the four types of corruption, an insightful model developed by Michael Johnston. According to him, there are four types of corruption: Influence Markets, Elite Cartels, Oligarchs and Clans, and Official Moguls. (Johnston) In each type, corruption has a different and particular form. It should be noted that corruption is not synonymous with bribery. Iraq falls somewhere in between Oligarchs and Clans and Official Moguls. In Iraq, the thin line between a businessman and a politician is blurred, and a businessman can be a politician, and the office is usually deemed as a means to getting rich. That could be found in both syndromes. At times, there could be political violence. Since the art of politics is non-existent, the people resort to violence to obtain what they want. This could be seen in both places. The difference is that in the oligarchs and clans, there is some sort of economic and political opening. It is not that much, but it is there. However, in Official Moguls syndrome, there is no democratic and almost no economic liberalization or opening. Iraq does have democratic and economic liberalization to a certain degree, but often politicians resort to violence. Moreover, the office is taken advantage of for personal gains. Both economic and political participation are weak within both syndromes, but even weaker in the second type. Iraq stands in between if one were to observe the different characteristics of the different syndromes. One cannot make definite conclusions. Since Iraq is a currently struggling, it is good to show how hard the struggle is. For that to be done, World Bank good governance indicators are used. There are six dimensions or indicators functioning as a way for illustrating whether a government has the values of good governance or not. The six indicators are as following: Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption, and Voice and Accountability. Voice and Accountability denotes how free the citizens of a country are and their ability in selecting their governments and economic and political participation. Political Stability and Absence of Violence is obvious in itself, and the Rule of Law denotes how stable and strong laws of the society are and whether the individuals abide by the laws. Enforcement of Contract rights, property, courts and the police and some elements of it. The Government Effectiveness, according to the World Bank, indicator demonstrates the quality of public services and the strength of the civil service and institutions and whether they are insulated from political pressure. As for Regulatory Quality, it mainly deals with sound policies as related to the private sector, whether policies formulated and implemented work in the favor of the private sector. Control of Corruption, additionally, illustrates the extent to which power is used for private gain and whether the government is captured by elites and strong interests. Having illustrated what each indicator means, the used data in this essay are compiled by the World Bank, and they range from -2.5 to 2.5, the higher the better the government’s ability, the better the government score. The date is used is from 2015. The data is compiled

World Bank and IMF projections indicate that the economy will grow by 7.2% in 2016 and will hover around five percent in the coming years. (World Bank) The size of the public sector in Iraq-measured by public spending-to-GDP ratio is (61.1 percent of GDP). (World Bank) Four million employees of the public sector comprise about half of total employment, and Iraq ranks 169 in doing business. All these, combined with corruption, have exacerbated the already existing issues. On July 7th, 2016, IMF approved a $5.34 billion Stand-By Arrangement for Iraq. (IMF) Iraq will receive loans from IMF for gapping the budget deficit. The aim of the agreement, according to IM, is to stabilize the Iraqi economy, manage external pressure, implement fiscal consolidation, curb corruption, strengthen public financial management and preserve financial sector stability. The aforementioned background information has its own importance. The good governance indicators by the World Bank helps in explaining the situation of Iraq when it comes to regulations and good governance in general. This essay examines Iraq’s score as related to World Bank good governance indicators and compares it to the MENA region in general in 2015. Moreover, examines Iraq’s CPI score and establishes whether it has any basis by comparing and illustrating Iraq’s Human Development Index. To begin with, it is of

This essay examines Iraq’s score as related to World Bank good governance indicators and compares it to the MENA region in general in 2015. Moreover, examines Iraq’s CPI score and establishes whether it has any basis by comparing and illustrating Iraq’s Human Development Index. To begin with, it is of essence to give an account of the oil industry and its peculiarities, and then it is fundamental to place Iraq within the four corruption syndrome types developed by Michael Johnston. Much of literature concerning the oil industry does not represent oil with a good reputation. Oil is credited with corruption, dictatorship, and an inefficient economy. Oil revenues have four characteristics that render them so consequential. The scale, source, (in)stability and secrecy of oil revenues have far-reaching impacts on the country. (Ross) The secrecy of the oil revenues often lead to corruption as it is not easy to monitor contracts and the amount of oil sold. Only guesses can be made. Iraq suffers due to corruption. One could go as far as claiming that corruption induces threats of national security. Ross examines the relationship between extractive economies and autocracy, and the relation is too obvious to be overlooked. Oil does result in autocracy as it is a secretive industry, and the scale of its revenues help in cooptation and intimidation of the population. Accountability is absent, and Iraq and the KRG are an example. Moreover, the oil industry crowds out the other non-oil sector industries. Since oil prices are highly volatile, it is hard to have an efficient stable economy. Without economic diversification, the economy will suffer. Additionally, since Iraq, as it will be illustrated later, is a country with high levels of corruption, it will be helpful to locate Iraq within the four types of corruption, an insightful model developed by Michael Johnston. According to him, there are four types of corruption: Influence Markets, Elite Cartels, Oligarchs and Clans, and Official Moguls. (Johnston) In each type, corruption has a different and particular form. It should be noted that corruption is not synonymous with bribery. Iraq falls somewhere in between Oligarchs and Clans and Official Moguls. In Iraq, the thin line between a businessman and a politician is blurred, and a businessman can be a politician, and the office is usually deemed as a means to getting rich. That could be found in both syndromes. At times, there could be political violence. Since the art of politics is non-existent, the people resort to violence to obtain what they want. This could be seen in both places. The difference is that in the oligarchs and clans, there is some sort of economic and political opening. It is not that much, but it is there. However, in Official Moguls syndrome, there is no democratic and almost no economic liberalization or opening. Iraq does have democratic and economic liberalization to a certain degree, but often politicians resort to violence. Moreover, the office is taken advantage of for personal gains. Both economic and political participation are weak within both syndromes, but even weaker in the second type. Iraq stands in between if one were to observe the different characteristics of the different syndromes. One cannot make definite conclusions. Since Iraq is a currently struggling, it is good to show how hard the struggle is. For that to be done, World Bank good governance indicators are used. There are six dimensions or indicators functioning as a way for illustrating whether a government has the values of good governance or not. The six indicators are as following: Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption, and Voice and Accountability. Voice and Accountability denotes how free the citizens of a country are and their ability in selecting their governments and economic and political participation. Political Stability and Absence of Violence is obvious in itself, and the Rule of Law denotes how stable and strong laws of the society are and whether the individuals abide by the laws. Enforcement of Contract rights, property, courts and the police and some elements of it. The Government Effectiveness, according to the World Bank, indicator demonstrates the quality of public services and the strength of the civil service and institutions and whether they are insulated from political pressure. As for Regulatory Quality, it mainly deals with sound policies as related to the private sector, whether policies formulated and implemented work in the favor of the private sector. Control of Corruption, additionally, illustrates the extent to which power is used for private gain and whether the government is captured by elites and strong interests. Having illustrated what each indicator means, the used data in this essay are compiled by the World Bank, and they range from -2.5 to 2.5, the higher the better the government’s ability, the better the government score. The date is used is from 2015. The data is compiled

Since oil prices are highly volatile, it is hard to have an efficient stable economy. Without economic diversification, the economy will suffer. Additionally, since Iraq, as it will be illustrated later, is a country with high levels of corruption, it will be helpful to locate Iraq within the four types of corruption, an insightful model developed by Michael Johnston. According to him, there are four types of corruption: Influence Markets, Elite Cartels, Oligarchs and Clans, and Official Moguls. (Johnston) In each type, corruption has a different and particular form. It should be noted that corruption is not synonymous with bribery. Iraq falls somewhere in between Oligarchs and Clans and Official Moguls. In Iraq, the thin line between a businessman and a politician is blurred, and a businessman can be a politician, and the office is usually deemed as a means to getting rich. That could be found in both syndromes. At times, there could be political violence. Since the art of politics is non-existent, the people resort to violence to obtain what they want. This could be seen in both places. The difference is that in the oligarchs and clans, there is some sort of economic and political opening. It is not that much, but it is there. However, in Official Moguls syndrome, there is no democratic and almost no economic liberalization or opening. Iraq does have democratic and economic liberalization to a certain degree, but often politicians resort to violence. Moreover, the office is taken advantage of for personal gains. Both economic and political participation are weak within both syndromes, but even weaker in the second type. Iraq would stand in between if one were to observe the different characteristics of the different syndromes. One cannot make definite conclusions. Since Iraq is a currently struggling, it is good to show how hard the struggle is. For that to be done, World Bank good governance indicators are used. There are six dimensions or indicators functioning as a way for illustrating whether a government has the values of good governance or not.

The six indicators are as following: Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption, and Voice and Accountability. Voice and Accountability denote how free the citizens of a country are and their ability in selecting their governments and economic and political participation. Political Stability and Absence of Violence is obvious in itself, and the Rule of Law denotes how stable and strong laws of the society are and whether the individuals abide by the laws. Enforcement of Contract rights, property, courts and the police and some elements of it. The Government Effectiveness, according to the World Bank, indicator demonstrates the quality of public services and the strength of the civil service and institutions and whether they are insulated from political pressure. As for Regulatory Quality, it mainly deals with sound policies as related to the private sector, whether policies formulated and implemented work in favor of the private sector. Control of Corruption, additionally, illustrates the extent to which power is used for private gain and whether the government is captured by elites and strong interests. Having illustrated what each indicator means, the used data in this essay are compiled by the World Bank, and they range from -2.5 to 2.5, the higher the better the government’s ability, the better the government score. The date is used is from 2015. The data is compiled

Iraq would stand in between if one were to observe the different characteristics of the different syndromes. One cannot make definite conclusions. Since Iraq is a currently struggling, it is good to show how hard the struggle is. For that to be done, World Bank good governance indicators are used. There are six dimensions or indicators functioning as a way for illustrating whether a government has the values of good governance or not. The six indicators are as following: Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption, and Voice and Accountability. Voice and Accountability denote how free the citizens of a country are and their ability in selecting their governments and economic and political participation. Political Stability and Absence of Violence is obvious in itself, and the Rule of Law denotes how stable and strong laws of the society are and whether the individuals abide by the laws. Enforcement of Contract rights, property, courts and the police and some elements of it. The Government Effectiveness, according to the World Bank, indicator demonstrates the quality of public services and the strength of the civil service and institutions and whether they are insulated from political pressure. As for Regulatory Quality, it mainly deals with sound policies as related to the private sector, whether policies formulated and implemented work in favor of the private sector. Control of Corruption, additionally, illustrates the extent to which power is used for private gain and whether the government is captured by elites and strong interests. Having illustrated what each indicator means, the used data in this essay are compiled by the World Bank, and they range from -2.5 to 2.5, the higher, the better the government’s ability, the better the government score. The date is used is from 2015. The data is compiled

To begin with, it is of essence to give an account of the oil industry and its peculiarities, and then it is fundamental to place Iraq within the four corruption syndrome types developed by Michael Johnston. Much of literature concerning the oil industry does not represent oil with a good reputation. Oil is credited with corruption, dictatorship, and an inefficient economy. Oil revenues have four characteristics that render them so consequential. The scale, source, (in)stability and secrecy of oil revenues have far-reaching impacts on the country. (Ross) The secrecy of the oil revenues often lead to corruption as it is not easy to monitor contracts and the amount of oil sold. Only guesses can be made. Iraq suffers due to corruption. One could go as far as claiming that corruption induces threats of national security. Ross examines the relationship between extractive economies and autocracy, and the relation is too obvious to be overlooked. Oil does result in autocracy as it is a secretive industry, and the scale of its revenues help in cooptation and intimidation of the population. Accountability is absent, and Iraq and the KRG are an example. Moreover, the oil industry crowds out the other non-oil sector industries. Since oil prices are highly volatile, it is hard to have an efficient stable economy. Without economic diversification, the economy will suffer. Additionally, since Iraq, as it will be illustrated later, is a country with high levels of corruption, it will be helpful to locate Iraq within the four types of corruption, an insightful model developed by Michael Johnston. According to him, there are four types of corruption: Influence Markets, Elite Cartels, Oligarchs and Clans, and Official Moguls. (Johnston) In each type, corruption has a different and particular form. It should be noted that corruption is not synonymous with bribery. Iraq falls somewhere in between Oligarchs and Clans and Official Moguls. In Iraq, the thin line between a businessman and a politician is blurred, and a businessman can be a politician, and the office is usually deemed as a means to getting rich. That could be found in both syndromes. At times, there could be political violence. Since the art of politics is non-existent, the people resort to violence to obtain what they want. This could be seen in both places. The difference is that in the oligarchs and clans, there is some sort of economic and political opening. It is not that much, but it is there. However, in Official Moguls syndrome, there is no democratic and almost no economic liberalization or opening. Iraq does have democratic and economic liberalization to a certain degree, but often politicians resort to violence. Moreover, the office is taken advantage of for personal gains. Both economic and political participation are weak within both syndromes, but even weaker in the second type. Iraq stands in between if one were to observe the different characteristics of the different syndromes. One cannot make definite conclusions. Since Iraq is a currently struggling, it is good to show how hard the struggle is. For that to be done, World Bank good governance indicators are used. There are six dimensions or indicators functioning as a way for illustrating whether a government has the values of good governance or not. The six indicators are as following: Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption, and Voice and Accountability. Voice and Accountability denotes how free the citizens of a country are and their ability in selecting their governments and economic and political participation. Political Stability and Absence of Violence is obvious in itself, and the Rule of Law denotes how stable and strong laws of the society are and whether the individuals abide by the laws. Enforcement of Contract rights, property, courts and the police and some elements of it. The Government Effectiveness, according to the World Bank, indicator demonstrates the quality of public services and the strength of the civil service and institutions and whether they are insulated from political pressure. As for Regulatory Quality, it mainly deals with sound policies as related to the private sector, whether policies formulated and implemented work in the favor of the private sector. Control of Corruption, additionally, illustrates the extent to which power is used for private gain and whether the government is captured by elites and strong interests. Having illustrated what each indicator means, the used data in this essay are compiled by the World Bank, and they range from -2.5 to 2.5, the higher the better the government’s ability, the better the government score. The date is used is from 2015. The data is compiled as households, businesses, non-governmental organizations and public sector is asked certain questions. The numeric values used here each illustrate how Iraq is doing when it comes to good governance. The estimate for the Control of Corruption is -1.4, according to the date from World Bank. -2.5 is the lowest. Iraq is doing better than Libya and Syria, with the former scoring -1.7 and the latter -1.5. The UAE, in the MENA region, leads by scoring 1.1, with Qatar lagging behind at 1.0. Hence, Iraq is doing bad when it comes to the control of corruption as compared to the MENA region, only doing somewhat better than Libya and Syria, two countries riddled with civil war. Voice and Accountability are two pillars upon which democracies rest, and Iraq’s score is estimated to be -1.2. In terms of voice and accountability, Iraq is doing much better than countries like the KSA, Iran, Libya, and Syria, with Turkey scoring the highest in the MENA region. Turkey’s score is -0.4. Therefore, the Iraqi government seems to be more accountable than other Middle Eastern states. Also, the Rule of Law is essential for any strong economy and stable state. Iraq’s score is estimated to be -1.5. Only Libya is doing worse than Iraq when it comes to the Rule of Law, scoring at -1.7. Qatar is leading the way by scoring at 0.9. Thus, Iraq is doing very bad when it comes to the Rule of Law as the state is captured by oligarchs and official moguls. As for political stability and absence of terrorism, Iraq’s score is -2.3. It is almost -2.5, one of the worse scores a country could possibly get. Only Syria, scoring at -2.9, is doing worse than Iraq. Qatar scores at 1, leading in this one as well. Most of the MENA region is not politically stable. Iraq’s regulatory quality is estimated to be -1.2. The Trifecta, Oman, Qatar, and UAE are doing well, with UAE leading the MENA region with the score of 1.1. Iraq is doing good compared to most of the MENA region. Additionally, Iraq’s score for government effectiveness is estimated to be -1.3. Iraq is doing worse than most of the MENA region. It is only doing better than Syria and Libya, while Qatar, KSA, and UAE are doing better, with the UAE leading by the score of 1.5. Overall, the Iraq government seems to only be doing better than Syria and Libya when it comes to good governance indicators. These two countries are faring through fiercer and stronger civil wars, worse than Iraq. Also, Qatar, Oman and UAE are doing very good on in lots of aspects. They are leading the MENA region, on average, for good governance measures. Iraq, on the other hand, has very low scores. Law is stepped on, regulations do not aim at promoting the private sector, and corruption is not fought well. Yet, Iraq seems to be more accountable and Iraqis seem to have a voice as compared to the MENA region overall. It is essential to examine how corrupted Iraq is. To see how corrupted Iraq is, the CPI score for Iraq needs to be used alongside HDI for Iraq. Transparency International composes data, made out of surveys, from different countries. The CPI score is from one to ten, with a higher score indicating a cleaner government. The higher the score, the cleaner the government, and the lower the score, the more corrupted the state. Iraq’s score is 1.5, one of the lowest scores. Iraq’s score is only higher than Myanmar, Afghanistan and Somalia. However, since this index is mostly perception and are the opinions of the ordinary people, businessmen and some other segments of the country, it is hard to support it. However, researchers make use of another tool to support this perception of corruption. The human development index is the tool. It covers education, life expectancy, gross national income and many other indicators. If the HDI score is low, then, in ways, it could be concluded that the country with a low CPI score, which means more corruptive, is indeed corrupted since a corrupted state would not do much to develop its human capital, as the logic holds. Iraq’s score is 0.654, and it ranks at 121. (UNDP) This is still a low score, and it in ways supports that Iraq is a highly corrupted state. It is not easy to draw conclusions, for generalizations do not help in clarifying pictures. Yet, it could be said that Iraq is doing very bad. Iraq has a weak government, rule of law is absent, and corruption is rampant. It is doing very bad compared to the MENA region. The region itself might not be doing well when it comes to the rest of the world, but Iraq is doing even worse than them, which is a deep tragedy. In addition, its CPI score is low, which means it is a corrupted state, and its human development score is going down by day. Perhaps the deal with IMF will make Iraq better, and perhaps the deal with the World Bank will make it even better.

The CPI score is from one to ten, with a higher score indicating a cleaner government. The higher the score, the cleaner the government, and the lower the score, the more corrupted the state. Iraq’s score is 1.5, one of the lowest scores. Iraq’s score is only higher than Myanmar, Afghanistan, and Somalia. However, since this index is mostly perception and is the opinions of the ordinary people, businessmen and some other segments of the country, it is hard to support it. However, researchers make use of another tool to support this perception of corruption. The human development index is the tool. It covers education, life expectancy, gross national income and many other indicators. If the HDI score is low, then, in ways, it could be concluded that the country with a low CPI score, which means more corruptive, is indeed corrupted since a corrupted state would not do much to develop its human capital, as the logic holds. Iraq’s score is 0.654, and it ranks at 121. (UNDP) This is still a low score, and it in ways supports that Iraq is a highly corrupted state. It is not easy to draw conclusions, for generalizations do not help in clarifying pictures. Yet, it could be said that Iraq is doing very bad. Iraq has a weak government, rule of law is absent, and corruption is rampant. It is doing very bad compared to the MENA region. The region itself might not be doing well when it comes to the rest of the world, but Iraq is doing even worse than them, which is a deep tragedy. In addition, its CPI score is low, which means it is a corrupted state, and its human development score is going down by day. Perhaps the deal with IMF will make Iraq better, and perhaps the deal with the World Bank will make it even better.

As for political stability and absence of terrorism, Iraq’s score is -2.3. It is almost -2.5, one of the worse scores a country could possibly get. Only Syria, scoring at -2.9, is doing worse than Iraq. Qatar scores at 1, leading in this one as well. Most of the MENA region is not politically stable. Iraq’s regulatory quality is estimated to be -1.2. The Trifecta, Oman, Qatar, and UAE are doing well, with UAE leading the MENA region with the score of 1.1. Iraq is doing good compared to most of the MENA region. Additionally, Iraq’s score for government effectiveness is estimated to be -1.3. Iraq is doing worse than most of the MENA region. It is only doing better than Syria and Libya, while Qatar, KSA, and UAE are doing better, with the UAE leading by the score of 1.5. Overall, the Iraq government seems to only be doing better than Syria and Libya when it comes to good governance indicators. These two countries are faring through fiercer and stronger civil wars, worse than Iraq. Also, Qatar, Oman and UAE are doing very good on in lots of aspects. They are leading the MENA region, on average, for good governance measures. Iraq, on the other hand, has very low scores. Law is stepped on, regulations do not aim at promoting the private sector, and corruption is not fought well. Yet, Iraq seems to be more accountable and Iraqis seem to have a voice as compared to the MENA region overall. It is essential to examine how corrupted Iraq is. To see how corrupted Iraq is, the CPI score for Iraq needs to be used alongside HDI for Iraq. Transparency International composes data, made out of surveys, from different countries. The CPI score is from one to ten, with a higher score indicating a cleaner government. The higher the score, the cleaner the government, and the lower the score, the more corrupted the state. Iraq’s score is 1.5, one of the lowest scores. Iraq’s score is only higher than Myanmar, Afghanistan, and Somalia. However, since this index is mostly perception and is the opinions of the ordinary people, businessmen and some other segments of the country, it is hard to support it. However, researchers make use of another tool to support this perception of corruption. The human development index is the tool. It covers education, life expectancy, gross national income and many other indicators. If the HDI score is low, then, in ways, it could be concluded that the country with a low CPI score, which means more corruptive, is indeed corrupted since a corrupted state would not do much to develop its human capital, as the logic holds. Iraq’s score is 0.654, and it ranks at 121. (UNDP) This is still a low score, and it in ways supports that Iraq is a highly corrupted state. It is not easy to draw conclusions, for generalizations do not help in clarifying pictures. Yet, it could be said that Iraq is doing very bad. Iraq has a weak government, the rule of law is absent, and corruption is rampant. It is doing very bad compared to the MENA region. The region itself might not be doing well when it comes to the rest of the world, but Iraq is doing even worse than them, which is a deep tragedy. In addition, its CPI score is low, which means it is a corrupted state, and its human development score is going down by day. Perhaps the deal with IMF will make Iraq better, and perhaps the deal with the World Bank will make it even better.

 

Works Cited

Kaufman, Daniel, Aart Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi. (2015) “The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues.” World Bank Research Working Paper NO. 5430 (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1682130) Corruption Perception Index. TI. http://files.transparency.org/content/download/132/531/2010_CPI_EN.pdf

Human Development Index. UNDP: http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/IRQ# Ross, Michael L. Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton U Pres, 2013. Print. Johnston, Michael. Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy. Cambridge University Press. 2005.

Iraq’s Economic Outlook- Spring 2016. World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/iraq/publication/economic-outlook-spring-2016 IMF Executive Board Approves US$5.34 billion Stand-By Arrangement for Iraq. IMF: https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2016/07/07/19/55/PR16321-Iraq-IMF-Executive-BoardApproves-US5-34-billion-Stand-By-Arrangement

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